This may be further extended to anything dealing with time, such as mwaka 'year' and perhaps mshahara 'wages'. Animals exceptional in some way and so not easily fitting in the other classes may be placed in this class. The other classes have foundations that may at first seem similarly counterintuitive. 37 In short, Classes 12 include most words for people: kin terms, professions, ethnicities, etc., thank including translations of most English words ending in -er. They include a couple generic words for animals: mnyama 'beast mdudu 'bug'. Classes 56 have a broad semantic range of groups, expanses, and augmentatives. Although interrelated, it is easier to illustrate if broken down: Augmentatives, such as joka 'serpent' from nyoka 'snake lead to titles and other terms of respect (the opposite of diminutives, which lead to terms of contempt Bwana 'sir shangazi 'aunt fundi 'craftsman kadhi 'judge'.
Finally, diminutives often denote contempt, and contempt is twist sometimes expressed against things that are dangerous. This might be the historical explanation for kifaru "rhinoceros kingugwa "spotted hyena and kiboko "hippopotamus" (perhaps originally meaning "stubby legs. Another class with broad semantic extension is the m-/mi- class (Bantu classes 3/4). This is often called the 'tree' class, because mti, miti "tree(s is the prototypical example. However, it seems to cover vital entities neither human nor typical animals: trees and other plants, such as mwitu 'forest' and mtama 'millet' (and from there, things made from plants, like mkeka 'mat supernatural and natural forces, such as mwezi 'moon mlima 'mountain mto 'river. From the central idea of tree, which is thin, tall, and spreading, comes an extension to other long or extended things or parts of things, such as mwavuli 'umbrella moshi 'smoke msumari 'nail and from activity there even come active instantiations of verbs, such. Words may be connected to their class by more than one metaphor. For example, mkono is an active body part, and mto is an active natural force, but they are also both long and thin. Things with a trajectory, such as mpaka 'border' and mwendo 'journey are classified with long thin things, as in many other languages with noun classes.
Examples of the latter are kitoto "infant from mtoto "child kitawi "frond from tawi "branch and chumba ( ki-umba ) "room from nyumba "house". It is the diminutive sense that has been furthest extended. An extension common to diminutives in many languages is approximation and resemblance (having a 'little bit' of some characteristic, like -y or -ish in English). For example, there is kijani "green from jani "leaf" (compare English 'leafy kichaka "bush" from chaka "clump and kivuli "shadow" from uvuli "shade". A 'little bit' of a verb would be an instance of an action, and such instantiations (usually not very active ones) are found: kifo "death from the verb -fa "to die kiota "nest" from -ota "to brood chakula "food" from kula "to eat kivuko "a. A resemblance, or being a bit like something, implies marginal status in a category, so things that are marginal examples of their class may take the ki-/vi- prefixes. One example is chura ( ki-ura ) "frog which is only half terrestrial and therefore is marginal as an animal. This extension may account for disabilities as well: kilema "a cripple kipofu "a blind person kiziwi "a deaf person".
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Not only did that mean that one letter often new stands for more than one sound, but also writers made different choices of which consonant to substitute. Here are some of the equivalents between Arabic Swahili and Roman Swahili: Arabic Swahili roman Swahili final Medial Initial Isolated aa b p mb mp bw pw mbw mpw t nt th? j nj ng ng' ny h kh h d nd dh? r d nd z nz s sh ch s, sw dhw t tw chw z th dh dhw? gh g ng ng' f fy v vy mv p k g ng ch sh ny l m n h w y ny That was the general situation, but conventions from Urdu were adopted by some authors so as to distinguish aspiration and /p/ from. Although it is not found in Standard Swahili today, there is a distinction between dental and alveolar consonants in some dialects, which is reflected in some orthographies, for example in -kuta 'to meet'.elements
kuta 'to be satisfied'. A k with the dots of y, was used for ch in some conventions; ky being historically and even contemporaneously a more accurate transcription than Roman. In Mombasa, it was common to use the Arabic emphatics for Cw, for example in swiswi (standard sisi ) 'we' and kitwa (standard kichwa ) 'head'. Word division differs from Roman norms. Particles such as ya, na, si, kwa, ni are joined to the following noun, and possessives such as yangu and yako are joined to the preceding noun, but verbs are written as two words, with the subject and tenseaspectmood morphemes separated from the object and. 36 Grammar edit see also: Swahili grammar noun classes edit semantic motivation edit The ki-/vi- class historically consisted of two separate genders, artefacts (Bantu class 7/8, utensils and hand tools mostly) and diminutives (Bantu class 12 which were conflated at a stage ancestral to Swahili. Examples of the former are kisu "knife kiti "chair" (from mti "tree, wood chombo "vessel" (a contraction of ki-ombo ).
u/ is pronounced like the "u" in z u l u or "oo" in l. Consonants edit Swahili also has the phonemes /p t tʃ k b d dʒ ɡ/. 33 "In some Arabic loans (nouns, verbs, adjectives) emphasis or intensity is expressed by reproducing the original emphatic consonants /d, s, t, z/ and the uvular /q or lengthening a vowel, where aspiration would be used in inherited Bantu words." 34 Orthography edit Swahili. Early 1900s) Swahili is currently written in an alphabet close to English, except it does not use the letters q and. 35 There are two digraphs for native sounds, ch and sh ; c is not used apart from unassimilated English loans and, occasionally, as a substitute for k in advertisements. There are also several digraphs for Arabic sounds not distinguished in pronunciation outside of traditional Swahili areas.
The language used to be written in the Arabic script. Unlike adaptations of the Arabic script for other languages, relatively little accommodation was made for Swahili. There were also differences in orthographic conventions between cities and authors and over the centuries, some quite precise but others different enough to cause difficulties with intelligibility. e/ and /i /o/ and /u/ were often conflated, but in some spellings, /e/ was distinguished from /i/ by rotating the kasra 90 and /o/ was distinguished from /u/ by writing the damma backwards. Several Swahili consonants do not have equivalents in Arabic, and for them, often no special letters were created unlike, for example, urdu script. Instead, the closest Arabic sound is substituted.
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Nearly half the 66 million mattress Congolese reportedly speak. 27 Swahili speakers may number 120 to 150 million in total. 28 Phonology edit Unlike the vast majority of Niger-Congo languages, 29 Swahili lacks contrastive tone. Due to this and the language's shallow orthography, swahili is said to be the easiest African language for an English speaker to learn. 30 Vowels edit Standard Swahili has five vowel phonemes : /ɑ /ɛ /i /ɔ and /u/. Vowels are never reduced, regardless of stress, but they are pronounced in full as follows: 31 /ɑ/ is pronounced like the "a" in f a ther. ɛ/ is pronounced like the "e" in g. i/ is pronounced like the "ee" in. ɔ/ is pronounced somewhat like the "o" in f.
Since Swahili was the language of lol commerce in East Africa, the colonial administrators wanted to standardize., an interterritorial conference attended by representatives of Kenya, tanganyika, uganda, and Zanzibar took place in Mombasa. The zanzibar dialect was chosen as standard Swahili for those areas, 20 and the standard orthography for Swahili was adopted. 21 Current status edit Swahili has become a second language spoken by tens of millions in three african Great lakes countries (Tanzania, kenya, and the drc) where it is an official or national language. It is the only African language in the African Union. In 2016, Swahili was made a compulsory subject in all Kenyan schools. 22 Swahili and closely related languages are spoken by relatively small numbers of people in Burundi, comoros, malawi, mozambique, uganda, zambia and Rwanda. 23 The language was still understood in the southern ports of the red sea in the 20th century. 24 25 Some 80 percent of approximately 49 million Tanzanians speak swahili in addition to their first languages. 26 The five eastern provinces of the drc are Swahili-speaking.
the grammatical and syntactic structure. 14 15 History edit Swahili in Persian script—memorial plate at the Askari monument, dar es Salaam (1927) Origin edit Its old name was Kingozi, but as traders came from Arab countries, their vocabulary intermingled with the language. It was originally written in Arabic script. 16 The earliest known documents written in Swahili are letters written in Kilwa in 1711 in the Arabic script that were sent to the portuguese of mozambique and their local allies. The original letters are preserved in the historical Archives of goa, india. 17 Colonial period edit Although originally written with the Arabic script, Swahili is now written in a latin alphabet introduced by Christian missionaries and colonial administrators. The text shown here is the catholic version of the lord's Prayer. 18 Christian missionaries were the ones that spread the latin alphabet to the Swahili people. They used it to communicate with the natives, spreading it further.
Shikomor, the official language in Comoros and also spoken. Mayotte shimaore is related to Swahili. 9, swahili is also one of the working languages of the African Union and officially recognised as a lingua franca of the east African Community. 10 A significant fraction of Swahili vocabulary derives from Arabic 11 through pdf contact with Persian-speaking Muslim inhabitants. For example, the Swahili word for "book" is kitabu, traceable back to the Arabic word kitābu (from the root. However, the Swahili plural form of this word books is vitabu, following Bantu grammar in which ki- is reanalysed as a nominal class prefix, whose plural. 12 Contents Classification edit Swahili is a bantu language of the sabaki branch. 13 In Guthrie's geographic classification, swahili is in Bantu zone g, whereas the other Sabaki languages are in zone E70, commonly under the name nyika. Local folk-theories of the language have often considered Swahili to be a mixed language because of its many loan words from Arabic, and the fact that Swahili people have historically been Muslims.
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Swahili, also known as, kiswahili (translation: language of the Swahili people. Bantu language and will the first language of the, swahili people. It is a lingua franca of the, african Great lakes region and other parts of eastern and south-eastern Africa, including. Tanzania, kenya, uganda, rwanda, burundi, mozambique, and the, democratic Republic of the congo (DRC). 7, comorian, spoken in the, comoros Islands is sometimes considered to be a dialect of Swahili, though other authorities consider it a distinct language. The exact number of Swahili speakers, be it native or second-language speakers, is unknown and a matter of debate. Various estimates have been put forward and they vary widely, from 50 million to over 100 million. 2, swahili serves as a national language of four nations: Tanzania, kenya, uganda, and the drc.