Marxs Communist Manifesto paints a rosy picture of how the dubai proletariat would overthrow the bourgeoisie and take over the means of production. He emphasized that the proletariat class will destroy the capitalist ruling class and aim for the establishment of classless society. Implying that communism is the complete return of a man to himself as a social being aiming for the equality. Since the economic forces causes the alienation it is the working class that could ultimately resolved the situation. The primary goal of Marx ideas is to have an economic system that does not assign roles as required by the division of labor and the mode of production. As stated in the book of Political Philosophy by john Hallowell and Jene. Porter (1997 there will have to be the abolition of private property and humans will have to get exchange, production, the mode of their mutual relations, under their own control again. Capitalism presents great oppressions.
Mastery or autonomy is attained, in rousseau, wallpaper through obeying a law one has prescribed for oneself, and, by so doing, moral liberty is realized. Eventually by realizing ones limitations we are in some ways gaining power and freedom because as a rational being we have the freedom to think of the noumenal realm and understand our limitations. Commonly used example is the existence of God. We can freely say that God really existed through our various phenomenal experiences. Thinking his existence deeply is transcending our ideas. If we can try to look at the picture, there was really an absence of formal justification that which it is impossible for us to claim its truthfulness. As a rational being, we have all the freedom to think but. Kant insisted that self-realization is gaining ones freedom and power. Karl Marx had his own ideas of freedom as stated in his book communist Manifesto, it is a highlight of class struggle between the people who work for wages which is also known as the proletariat and the people who owned the lands, factories, resources.
And even although, as a rational creature, he desires a law to impose limits on the freedom of all, he is still misled by his self-seeking animal inclinations into exempting himself from the law where he can. He thus requires a master to break his self-will and force him to obey a universally valid will under which everyone can be free. Kant has its own unique formulation of Golden Rule: Act only on that maxim through which you can at the same time will that it should become a universal law. When humans are guided by moral imperatives, humans could realize the drive to be perfect. We would also be autonomous because we would have willed the imperatives and applied them to ourselves. As a consequence, we will experience to be masters of ourselves. Kant was influenced by rousseaus conception of a free, autonomous person.
Essay on, the nebular Hypothesis of Immanuel Kant
This drive is called pride, it is the failure of man to accept his limitations. Human beings desire to be like god, to have certainty, control, and power which according. Kant in theology is referred as Sin. He argued, that we cannot attain perfection in this life but with the various moral imperatives we can, by our own mind and will, continually try to reach perfection. We will write a custom essay sample on, immanuel, kant essay or any similar topic specifically for you.
The end result or consequence of a persons action or decision to say or do something does not constitute morality—how you got there in the first place is what matters. Some end results do not always turn out the way we want them to, but if the intention of the action is morally right, how can you judge it as being wrong. The actions of people who lie, cheat or steal as a way to get what they want are not morally right; they are using other people as a means to their end. When you decide to act or react to a situation you need to ask yourself, would it be okay if everyone did what i am about to say or do? If the answer is yes, then your motive was based on a good moral decision. I believe it is our duty to do the right thing, as this gives humanity a solid foundation to build on its rules and principles.
Immanuel, kant was a philosopher and theologian who attempted to respect both the new empirical science and the truths of Christianity while karl Marx at first was an idealist who viewed history as the field of contesting ideas but later became a materialist who saw. According to, kant, human nature is divided into two realms: first part is the homo phenomenon which explains our physical being through our experiences and appearances of things. Immanuel, kant essay introduction. And the second part is the homo noumenon (spirit) or the mind dimension which constitutes the reality. He argued that human beings experienced these two realms as a physical being and as a spiritual being able to perceive the ideal of perfection and aware of moral truths. The most difficult realm to achieve is the realm of homo noumenon. It is beyond our ability to realize but we have a duty to try and to be perfect. Our human unhappiness or alienation is born from the conflicts and tensions we experienced at being finite. Kant concluded, that the real source of human alienation or unhappiness is our ability to realize our psychological drive to attain completion and perfection.
Fallacies of Egoism and Altruism, and the
Also, the idea of human embryos being created and destroyed simply to further genetic research objectives is simply abhorrent on an instinctive level. Can be seen that this technology needs to be carefully controlled and supervised in regards to moral issues, it should not be totally banned either, as it also has the power to benefit society to a great degree. So will such that the maxim of your will could become a universal law for all men. kant is saying your actions, based on good save will, can apply to all; so that good moral judgments made can become universal for everyone. Kant believed a persons motive, his intentions of an action are what decides if the action is morally right or wrong—not the end result of that action or decision. Kant s categorical imperative approach says a person has the moral duty to do what is right, because it is the right thing to do, not because it may benefit them. We will write a custom essay sample on, kant s Formula of Humanity or any similar topic specifically for you. If a persons actions or decisions will contradict those maxims, then the action should not be taken. Kant s theory that a persons motive is what makes a persons action morally right or wrong.
This is been particularly beneficial in treating the elderly (Emery and Malcolm, 1995). As this brief summary of scientific reviews research being conducted into cloning and genetic research indicates, there are enormous benefits to be reaped from this new and controversial technology. Kant would undoubtedly approve of research that so obvious benefits humanity and society. What people seem to fear, and what would undoubtedly be wrong by any moral system, are nightmare scenarios propagated by the media and Hollywood. Images of clones being used simply as spare parts to extend the life of the rich, for example, has been dramatized in film. This sort of misuse of technology would constitute a threat to the social system and, therefore, would not pass. Kant s categorical imperative test. In other words, if everyone were cloned, it would significantly lower the way that human life is valued in our society.
anticipates this technology utilizing skin and blood cells, and possibly even neuronal tissue that could then be used in the treatment of injury, transplants for leukemia, and for degenerative disease such as Parkinsons disease (p. In another area of research, the successful cloning of human growth hormone (HGH) is important for several reasons. First of all, a child that has pituitary dwarfism requires twice-weekly injections until reaching age. In the past, hgh was could only be obtained by removal of human pituitary tissue at autopsy. To treat one child with pituitary dwarfism using previous methods required obtaining over a thousand pituitaries (Emery and Malcolm, 1995,. Not only has it been difficult in the past to produce enough hgh to successfully provide treatment to all the children who needed it, but small amounts of contaminating virus caused some of the children treated to develop Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease (Emery and Malcolm, 1995,. Cloning technology, which permits hgh to be produced artificially, has provided a readily available supply of hgh, which-in turn-has allowed the application of hgh in other treatments. For example, it has been discovered that hgh can be used to speed up the healing process for bone fractures (Emery and Malcolm, 1995).
A great deal of technical information has been left out in the the sensationalism that abounded in the media. For one thing, the media did not make it clear that Dolly was not an identical clone (Wilson,1997). Part of everyones genetic material comes from the mitochondria in the cytoplasm of the egg. In the case of Dolly, only the nuclear dna was transferred (Wilson, 1997). This may have significant information to import to scientists concerning the aging process since aging is related to acquired mutations in mitochondrial dna (Wilson, 1997,. Furthermore, as Dolly ages, it has been noted that she is aging prematurely, which provides another source of information for scientists, but also signals that this technology is far from perfected. Research conducted on nuclear transfer into human eggs has the possibility of providing an immense amount of information that may have clinical value, by providing a model for learning more about somatic cell differentiation (Wilson, 1997,.
Immanuel Kant stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy )
Rather, kant looked toward the intentions of the individual. If an individual acts from good intentions, out of respect for moral law, his actions, are by definition, good. Kant argued that write individuals instinctively avoid behavior, which, if performed by everyone, would create anarchy. We know, not by reasoning, but by vivid and immediate feelings, that we must avoid behavior which, if adopted by all men, would render social life impossible (Durant, 1961,. As this brief summary of Kantian ethics suggests,. Kant were presented with the problem of the morality of genetic research, he would, first of all, be concerned about the motivations of the researchers, their intentions in conducting such research (Frost, 1962). In the furor that was quickly generated over the successfully cloning of a sheep, dolly, the usefulness of cloning technology to current medical practice was pushed aside. Nevertheless, the applications are considerable.