Taking into account all these circumstances, russia faces to necessity of the policy in Central Asia. The further prolongation above-mentioned of the tendencies will have for it painful enough consequences. Despite of some variation of a role of Russia in Central Asia, for kazakhstan the strategic interests in a ratio of Russia continue to be saved. The necessity of activation of ratios with Russia and holding of constructive for cooperating on much important for kazakhstan to directions is dictated as well by that in case of essential weakening of Russia in Central Asia it will be fraught with negative consequences. The situation in region can become unstable and badly forecast. In the whole traditional interests of kazakhstan in a ratio of Russia are founded on four factors having long-time character and diminuendos by such eternal categories, as geography and history. First, the maintenance partner of ratios with Russia is necessary valid intercontinental of an arrangement of kazakhstan, for which the exit on the world market is vital for an economic development. Russia in this respect occupies the strategically important position; being by the state, on which region pass vital for us strategy of transport and communication.
A peaking of a problem extremism and the terrorisms in Central Asia, activation Islamic of driving of Uzbekistan, irreconcilable part of Integrated Tadjik opposition at immediate support Talib have established in real threat for the countries of region. In these conditions only russia was considered by the states of region as the real factor and safety. It is enough to recollect, that these years the contacts through link dknb, intensive two-sided ratios in military and military-engineering sphere were especially made active. Thus, usa has occupied oil and gases a niche in our region, and Russia and China by virtue of economic circumstances could not with interests it compete in this direction. In this geopolitical triangle russia all the same occupied a little bit dominating positions. This majoring in many respects was determined strategic military-political component, which role in the international ratios is traditionally high. In a context of a common global situation Russia forced to be reconciled with a determination of military basses of usa in region of its traditional interests.
Until recently russia ensured above-mentioned interests without the special efforts. All countries of region in the majority were that or are otherwise dependent on Russian t the events, which have occurred after September of the last year, have brought in serious enough variations to a geopolitical situation in Central Asia and have affected on common. One of the occurred key variations consists that the break in sphere of traditional vital interests of Russia is watched which today faces to necessity central Asia of policy. As a whole by 2001 in Central Asia the private tripartite balance between interests of Russia, china, usa was folded. The given balance can figuratively be presented as a triangle, in which upper corner Russia, in one lower corner - usa, in the friend - china settled down. These countries have occupied three strategic niches in Caspian central Asia region: military-political, oil and gas, commodity-raw. The russian presence at region last years was ensured, first of all, with strategic military-political component.
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The main distinctive feature of the source base of the study is the fact that most documents of the given period of political history have not yet been moved to the archives; it was therefore necessary to turn on many occasions to various central and. The identification and systematization of many sources, their publication in a collection of materials devoted to the development of kazakhstani-russian relations was in themselves an important task. It may thus be said that extensive sources have been used in the analysis of the above-mentioned problems; their study made it possible to paint a comprehensive picture of the development of kazakhstani-russian relations against the background of the sovereignty of kazakhstan. E russian-kazakhstan ratioes at the present stage in a context of events, which have taken place in region after September 11, the role of Russia in Central Asia a little has varied, as well as all has varied geopolitical formulated in region last years. In these conditions of one of important external policies of tasks of kazakhstan is the adjusting of tactics and strategy in ratios with Russia, which would correspond by modern geopolitical realities and long-term interests novel of our country. Central Asia and Caspian sea, so-called recently caspian central Asia region, go into an region of traditional interests of Russia.
In this region it always had the important national interests, which, however, in different periods were defined by different circumstances and factors. The key interests of Russia in this region at the present stage can be reduced to the following. Central Asia has the important value in of a safety of Russia. The importance of this region for Russia is stipulated not oil by the factor implying from desire to save influence on Caspian sea; Our region is of interest for Russia territorial, where its compatriots live. Are those, on our sight three dominating interest of Russian Federation, dominating, caspian central Asia region at the present stage. It in this region has also other interests trade, cosmotron of baikonur, industrial communications etc. But they now in basic carry not so priority character.
Special mention should be made of the collective work The new Treaty of Union: The search for Solutions. Problems of mutual relations between newly independent states have also become the subjects of attention of Russian experts and political scientists. The period of disintegration of the ussr and of the development of kazakhstan as a sovereign independent state are at present actively studied by kazakhstan scientists. Works have been written on the problem of the emergence of the new statehood, development of the system of separation of powers, democratization of society, evolution of party structures and institutions of democracy, and the construction of a new legal and judicial system. Present State and Works on the subject of bilateral kazakhstani-russian relations from the moment the two states achieved independence can be divided into several groups. The first and the most numerous one deal with relations between kazakhstan and Russia within the framework of the commonwealth of Independent States.
In recent years the development of market relations has considerably boosted interest for economic and trade cooperation between the two independent states. Mention must be made of a joint work by the staff of the russian Institute for Strategic Studies under the title kazakhstan: realities and Perspectives of Independent development, It should be noted, though, that this work suffers from an obviously incomplete documentary and factual basis. The study is based on such sources as legal acts and interstate kazakhstani-russian treaties, agreements, declarations, joint protocols, and other documents and materials, as well as decrees, decisions, and resolutions of the organs of state power in kazakhstan and Russia. Extremely important sources for the study of the last five years in the history of kazakhstan and of kazakhstani-russian relations are the works of President Nursultan nazarbayev of kazakhstan: Without the right or the left, The Strategy of the formation and development of kazakhstan. The process of market reform in the republic and the tendencies and prospects for further reform in the socioeconomic sphere are reflected in several books by kazakhstan's Prime minister. M.Kazhegeldin: The socioeconomic Problems of development of the republic of kazakhstan in Times of Reform, kazakhstan in Times of Reform, Problems of State regulation Under the conditions of Socioeconomic Transformation. The formation of the republic's diplomatic service and problems of its civilized entry in the world community are studied in the works of kayev, kazakhstan's foreign minister. Intense legislative processes at all levels in the given period necessitated close attention to the legal basis of the newly independent states. As far as kazakhstan is concerned, that legal basis includes above all the constitutions of 19, of which the content and the sociopolitical background may be seen as the quintessence of the given period in the country's history.
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It determined the principles of bilateral relations in the political, economic, military-strategic, cultural, and spiritual spheres, lending a colossal impulse to the entire subsequent negotiation process. During the search for a model of interstate economic and political cooperation between kazakhstan and Russia, the principles were developed for bilateral relations, which were later recorded in the treaty of friendship, review cooperation, and mutual assistance. The first official visit of President nazarbayev of kazakhstan to the russian Federation in March 1994 marked the beginning of the third stage in the development of kazakhstani-russian relations - that of expanding and deepening integration between kazakhstan and Russia. This division of the time frame of bilateral kazakhstani-russian relations into periods shows that one of the goals of the present work is to demonstrate continuous development between kazakhstan and Russia in the post-soviet period. As the period of political history analyzed here is extremely close to the present, it cannot be regarded as worked out in detail in Russian and foreign scientific literature. However, the problems of development of the new statehood of post-soviet countries of kazakhstan in this case, of the birth and evolution of interstate relations, of their entry into the international community, are being studied ever more actively. The crucial period of the disintegration of the ussr and the emergence on the map of the world of new, independent states was primarily reflected in scientific periodicals.
At this stage, both states solved such essay problems as defining their status in the system of world politics, establishing relations with leading world nations, and entering the field of international law. The dominant role of kazakhstani problems has determined the chronological framework of the investigation. The overall time frame covers the period from December 1991 the setting up of the commonwealth of Independent States, which finally marked the disintegration of the ussr to the end of 1995. In the four years, bilateral kazakhstani - russian relations went through a series of significant stages the study of which can adequately determine the level of mutual relations between the two countries, the scope and range of integration. We single out three stages in the development of kazakhstani-russian relations: — defining the legal interstate relations of the two countries December 19 — searching for a model of economic and political cooperation between the states may 19 — expanding and deepening integration between kazakhstan. Although some elements of legal contractual relations between kazakhstan and Russia may be discovered before december 1991, when attempts to preserve the soviet Union were made, it will be more chronologically correct, in our view, to choose the moment at which the cis was legally. We propose that the signing in may 1992 of the treaty of friendship, cooperation, and mutual assistance between the two countries be singled out as the concluding moment of the first stage in the relations between kazakhstan and Russia and at the same time. That document became the foundation for qualitatively new relations in the history of the two states, opening the first page in the official interstate relations in the new history of kazakhstan and Russia.
causes. Another unifying factor is time—the many centuries of the history of mutual relations between the peoples of the two countries that have been neighbors in these great open spaces since the beginning of time. This far from simple history, full of drama and heroism, these strata of time bound together by the unremitting toil of numerous generations, unite the two peoples. The soviet period in the relations between the two states let us recall that, according to the 1977 Constitution of the ussr, the constituent republics of the soviet Union were declared to be "sovereign soviet socialist states" united in the Union of soviet Socialist Republics. The ubiquitous and all-round dominance of All-Union structures made meaningless all talk of real interstate relations between kazakhstan and Russia. Both sides were in this case the objects of a grandiose social experiment. Although positive achievements of tills period cannot be discarded either. The emergence and further development of relations of equal partnership between new independent states, the republic of kazakhstan and the russian Federation, became a sort of synthesis of the entire centuries-old history of kazakh-Russian relations. Only now can the relations between the two countries be justifiably described as subject-subject ones.
In his preface to gumilyov's book, ancient Rus and the Great Steppe, academician Dmitry. Likhachev wrote this: Rightly taking into account the links between subsistence economy and the level of prosperity of ancient societies, and thus their military power, the author also compares historical events and climactic fluctuations of the steppe zone of Eurasia. In this way he arrived at a series of clarifications, which enabled him to describe in detail the historical-geographic backdrop against which various cultural influences came in conflict with the local forms of the original culture of Eastern Europe. It must be noted in any analysis of the emergence of the 15 new, post-soviet states on the map of Eurasia that certain specific features marked the genesis of each of them. The present study focuses on the processes of sovereignty of kazakhstan, and the specificity of these processes lies in that from the very beginning the republic's political leadership did not initiate centrifugal tendencies, regarding reasonable integration an imperative of the times and endeavoring will to ease. Kazakhstan was the last former soviet republic to declare its independence - not out of any strong gravitation toward the past or peripheral political development let us recall that kazakhstan was one of the first to experience, in December 1986, the repressive power of totalitarianism. The history of numerous bloody ethnic, social, and even interstate conflicts in the post-soviet space bears striking evidence of that. The immediate subject matter of the present study is not just the isolated process of the sovereignty of one of the post-soviet countries but the emergence and development against this background of new interstate relations of two major republics of the soviet Union, kazakhstan and. In our view, it is relations between precisely these two countries that can be seen as a model for the establishment of equal and mutually advantageous between newly independent states.
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Contents, introduction. The russian-kazakhstan ratioes at the essays present stage.1, mutual Trade.2, cooperating in oil gas and power.3, cooperating in sphere of transport and communication. Condition of foreign trade both devt of the joint / enterprises kazakhsan and russia.1, some aspects of economic interaction kazakhstan and Russia.2 The factors of economic interaction of kazakhstan and Russia.3, engaging the foreign investments.4. Cooperating in the field of electric power industry.5, cooperating in the field of machine construction industry.6, cooperating in the field of a uranium industry. Involvement in international organizations, kazakhstan and russia.1, the eurasian Union: realities and Perspectives. Vital problems of the present-day state of 44 kazakhstani-russian relations. Conclusion 61, list of used sourses 65, introduction. The origins of kazakhstani-russian relations lie in hoary antiquity, when kazakhs and Russians lived on the vast Eurasian territory and, being neighbors, developed good-neighborly relations in all the spheres of human activity. In analyzing the relations between Rus and the Great Steppe, one cannot fail to mention the work of the greatest specialist in this field, lev.