Also, the American Psychological Association specifically says, 14 15 "without an apostrophe". However, the 1999 style guide for The new York times states that the addition of an apostrophe is necessary when pluralizing all abbreviations, preferring "PC's, tv's and vcr's". 16 Following those who would generally omit the apostrophe, to form the plural of run batted in, simply add an s to the end of rbi. 17 For all other rules, see below: to form the plural of an abbreviation, a number, or a capital letter used as a noun, simply add a lowercase s to the end. Apostrophes following decades and single letters are also common. A group of MPs The roaring 20s Mind your Ps and Qs to indicate the plural of the abbreviation or symbol of a unit of measure, the same form is used as in the singular. 1 lb or 20 lb 1 ft or 16 ft 1 min or 45 min When an abbreviation contains more than one full point, hart's Rules recommends putting the s after the final one. T.s However, subject trunk to any house style or consistency requirement, the same plurals may be rendered less formally as: PhDs MPhils the dts. (This is the recommended form in the new Oxford Dictionary for Writers and Editors.) According to hart's Rules, an apostrophe may be used in rare cases where clarity calls for it, for example when letters or symbols are referred to as objects.
S." When an abbreviation appears at the end of a sentence, only one period is used: The capital of the United States is Washington,. Plural forms edit There is a question about how to pluralize abbreviations, particularly acronyms. Often a writer will add an 's' following an apostrophe, as in "PC's". However, this style is not preferred by many style guides. For instance, kate turabian, writing about style in academic writings, 12 allows for an apostrophe to form plural acronyms "only when an abbreviation contains internal periods or both capital and lowercase letters". Turabian would therefore prefer "DVDs" and "URLs" and "Ph. D.'s while the modern Language Association 13 explicitly says, "do not use an apostrophe to form the plural of an abbreviation".
The only exceptions are ". " (to avoid the appearance of " no initials within persons' names (such as "George. Smith and "St." within persons' names when the person prefers it (such as "Emily. Clair (but not in city names such as St louis or St paul ). (ama style also forgoes italic on terms long since naturalized into English from Latin, new Latin, other languages, or isv ; thus, no italic for eg, ie, vs,., in vivo, in vitro, or in situ.) Acronyms that were originally capitalized (with or without. Examples are sonar, radar, lidar, laser, snafu, and scuba. Today, spaces are generally not used between single-letter abbreviations of words in the same phrase, so one almost never encounters "U. .
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The reverend Abbreviation rev. The reverend Contraction revd rev—d The right Honourable contraction and Abbreviation Rt Hon. In American English, the period is usually included regardless of whether or not it is a contraction,. In some cases, periods analysis are optional, as in either us. For United States, eu. For European Union, and un.
There are some house styles, however—American ones included—that remove the periods from almost all abbreviations. For example: The. Manual on Uniform Traffic Control devices advises that periods should not be used with abbreviations on road signs, essay except for cardinal directions as part of a destination name. (For example, "Northwest Blvd", "W. Jefferson", and "ped xing" all follow this recommendation.) ama style, used in many medical journals, uses no periods in abbreviations or acronyms, with almost no exceptions. Thus eg, ie, vs,., dr, mr, mri, icu, and hundreds of others contain no periods.
Sms, for instance, supports message lengths of 160 characters at most (using the gsm.38 character set). This brevity gave rise to an informal abbreviation scheme sometimes called Textese, with which 10 or more of the words in a typical sms message are abbreviated. 10 More recently Twitter, a popular social networking service, began driving abbreviation use with 140 character message limits. Style conventions in English edit In modern English, there are several conventions for abbreviations, and the choice may be confusing. The only rule universally accepted is that one should be consistent, and to make this easier, publishers express their preferences in a style guide.
Questions which arise include those in the following subsections. Lowercase letters edit If the original word was capitalized then the first letter of its abbreviation should retain the capital, for example lev. When a word is abbreviated to more than a single letter and was originally spelled with lower case letters then there is no need for capitalization. However, when abbreviating a phrase where only the first letter of each word is taken, then all letters should be capitalized, as in ytd for year-to-date, pcb for printed circuit board and fyi for for your information. However, see the following section regarding abbreviations that have become common vocabulary: these are no longer written with capital letters. Periods (full stops) and spaces edit a period (full stop) is often used to signify an abbreviation, but opinion is divided as to when and if this should happen. According to hart's Rules, the traditional rule is that abbreviations (in the narrow sense that includes only words with the ending, and not the middle, dropped) terminate with a full stop, whereas contractions (in the sense of words missing a middle part) do not, but. 2 :p167170 Fowler's Modern English Usage says full stops are used to mark both abbreviations and contractions, but recommends against this practice: advising them only for abbreviations and lower-case initialisms and not for upper-case initialisms and contractions. 11 Example category Short form source doctor Contraction Dr d—r Professor Abbreviation Prof.
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In French, the period only follows an abbreviation if the last letter in dissertation the abbreviation is not the last letter of its antecedent: "M." is the abbreviation for "monsieur" while "Mme" is that for "madame". Like many other cross- channel linguistic acquisitions, many Britons readily took this plan up and followed this rule themselves, while the Americans took a simpler rule and applied it rigorously. Citation needed over the years, however, the lack of convention in some style guides has made it difficult to determine which two-word abbreviations should be abbreviated with periods and which should not. Media tend to use periods in two-word abbreviations like united States (U.S. but not personal computer (PC) or television (TV). Many British publications have gradually done away with the use of periods in abbreviations. Minimization of punctuation in typewritten material became economically desirable in the 1960s and 1970s for the many users of carbon-film ribbons since a period or comma consumed the same length of non-reusable expensive ribbon as did a capital letter. Widespread use of electronic communication through mobile phones and the Internet during the 1990s allowed for a marked rise in colloquial abbreviation. This was due largely to increasing popularity of textual communication services such as instant- and text messaging.
The early modern English period, between the 15th and 17th centuries, had abbreviations like ye for þe, used for the word the : "hence, by later misunderstanding, ye olde tea shoppe." 7 During the growth of philological linguistic theory in business academic Britain, abbreviating became very. The use of abbreviation for the names. Tolkien and his friend. Lewis, and other members of the Oxford literary group known as the Inklings, are sometimes cited as symptomatic of this. Citation needed likewise, a century earlier in Boston, a fad of abbreviation started that swept the United States, with the globally popular term ok generally credited as a remnant of its influence. 8 9 After World War ii, the British greatly reduced the use of the full stop and other punctuation points after abbreviations in at least semi-formal writing, while the Americans more readily kept such use until more recently, and still maintain it more than Britons. The classic example, considered by their American counterparts quite curious, was the maintenance of the internal comma in a british organisation of secret agents called the " Special Operations, Executive "—"S.O., E"—which is not found in histories written after about 1960. But before that, many Britons were more scrupulous at maintaining the French form.
beowulf used many abbreviations, for example 7 or for and, and y for since, so that "not much space is wasted". 5 The standardisation of English in the 15th through 17th centuries included such a growth in the use of abbreviations. 6 citation needed At first, abbreviations were sometimes represented with various suspension signs, not only periods. For example, sequences like er were replaced with ɔ, as in mastɔ for master and exacɔbate for exacerbate. While this may seem trivial, it was symptomatic of an attempt by people manually reproducing academic texts to reduce the copy time. An example from the Oxford University register, 1503: citation needed mastɔ subwardenɔ y ɔmēde me to you. And wherɔ y wrot to you the last wyke that y trouyde itt good to differrɔ thelectionɔ ovɔ to quīdenaɔ tinitatis y have be thougħt me synɔ that itt woll be thenɔ a bowte mydsomɔ.
Acronyms and initialisms are regarded as subsets of abbreviations (e.g. Council of Science Editors ). They are abbreviations that consist of the initial letters or parts of words. Contents, history edit, see also: Scribal abbreviation, abbreviations have a long history, created so that spelling out a whole word could be avoided. This might be done to save time and space, and also to provide secrecy. Shortened words were used and initial letters were commonly used to represent words in specific applications. Greece and, rome, the reduction of words to single letters was common. 3 In Roman inscriptions, "Words were commonly abbreviated by summary using the initial letter or letters of words, and most inscriptions have at least one abbreviation." However, "some could have more than one meaning, depending on their context.
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For the abbr html tag, see. Html element abbr. Example of, latin text with abbreviations, an abbreviation report (from, latin brevis, meaning short 1 ) is a shortened form of a word or phrase. It consists of a group of letters taken from the word or phrase. For example, the word abbreviation can itself be represented by the abbreviation abbr., abbrv., or abbrev. In strict analysis, abbreviations should not be confused with contractions, crasis, acronyms, or initialisms, with which they share some semantic and phonetic functions, though all four are connected by the term "abbreviation" in loose parlance. 2 :p167An abbreviation is a shortening by any method; a contraction is a reduction of size by the drawing together of the parts. A contraction of a word is made by omitting certain letters or syllables and bringing together the first and last letters or elements; an abbreviation may be made by omitting certain portions from the interior or by cutting off a part. A contraction is an abbreviation, but an abbreviation is not necessarily a contraction.