The first was unconditionally removable, things that could be remedied by government action, such as oliver material need, lack of space, no one at home, or no institution to put child. The second category was conditionally removable, things that might possibly be remedied by government action, such as the absence of husband, family troubles, or illness of one or both parents. The third category was unremovable, things that were not caused by social conditions, such as a baby in family or many children already. The fourth category was unclear causes, such as one or both parents unwilling to have a child and other or multiple reasons. The results for this question were: of the reasons given by urban women, 35 were unconditionally removable,.5, were conditionally removable, 10 were unremovable, and.9 were unclear. Of the reasons given by rural women,.3 were unconditionally removable, 18 were conditionally removable, 10 were unremovable, and.2 were unclear. The most marked different was that more urban women cited lack of space as a reason. The survey results found that abortion rates were much higher among women who work, unsurprisingly, with a rate of 105.5 abortions per thousand pregnancies, as against.5 per thousand in women who did not work. If the abortion rates of this survey are taken to be representative, then during this period the number of annual abortions was higher than the number of live births.
Second, we can learn how many children the women had. Of the urban women,.2 were childless,.2 had one child,.1 had two children, and.5 had three or more children, making the median number of children.47. Of the rural women,.2 were childless,.9 desk had one child, 30 had two children, and.9 had three or more children, the median number of children being.06. Of women seeking abortions, urban women were more likely to have fewer or no children. 23 This may have been an effect of the lack of space faced by urban women. The survey also examined womens reasons for seeking abortions. It divided the reasons into four categories.
The language of the decree implied that most women would choose motherhood over abortion and that preventing abortion remained a goal of the government, as it was still encouraging population growth. 21 During the late 1950s and 1960s, it is estimated that the soviet Union had some of the highest abortion rates in the world. The abortion rate during this period is not known for sure, because the soviet Union did not start releasing abortion statistics until perestroika. The best estimates, which are based on surveys of medical professionals during this time, say that about 6 to 7 million abortions were performed per year. 22 One of the few insights we have regarding abortion during the late 1950s is a survey, conducted between 19, of 26,000 women seeking abortions, 20,000 from urban areas and 6,000 from rural areas. Several facts can be gathered from this survey regarding what kind of women sought abortions and their reasons for doing. First of all, an overwhelming majority of the women were married, though the survey results do not give an exact percentage.
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The law provided allowances to women for their seventh and subsequent children up until their third birthday. In 1944 the about benefits were expanded to offer allowances for the third children until their fourth birthday and for fourth and subsequent children until their seventh birthday. However, all of this aid was cut in 1948, after the largest source of population depletions, world War ii, was over. Despite abortion being outlawed and these fertility policies, abortion rates remained high during this time. Illegal abortions caused an estimated 4,000 deaths per year from complications from underground abortions. Women continued to get illegal abortions during this time due to policies encouraging married women to be employed and economic policies favoring heavy industry and national defense over housing and consumer goods.
18 During the postwar era, millions of men were dead and the government was forced to legitimize single-mother families. The new Family law of 1944 sanctioned single motherhood as a site of reproduction by providing financial support for single mothers. The prevalence of single mothers in this time was a reality; by 1957,.2 million women were claiming government aid as single mothers. 19 1955 onward edit After Stalins death in 1953, the soviet government revoked the 1936 laws 20 and issued a new law on abortion. 21 The decree stated that measures carried out by the soviet state to encourage motherhood and protect infancy, as well as the uninterrupted growth of the consciousness and culturedness of women, allowed for the change in policy.
The circular requested that regional prosecutors step up efforts to combat unsanctioned abortion, citing a letter submitted to the Procuracy by an anonymous private citizen decrying the harm done to women by babki in one rural district. A month later, izvestiia ran a piece condemning "the plight of young women who ended up at the abortionist's doorstep after being unable to find employment." edit In 1936 the soviet Union made abortion illegal again, stemming largely from Joseph Stalin s worries about population. The law that outlawed abortion did not only do just that, but rather contained several different decrees. The official title of the law was, decree on the Prohibition of Abortions, the Improvement of Material Aid to women in Childbirth, the Establishment of State Assistance to parents of Large families, and the Extension of the network of lying-in Homes, nursery schools and Kindergartens. All of this was part of Stalins initiative to encourage population growth, as well as place a stronger emphasis on the importance of the family unit to communism.
16 This decree provoked widespread resentment and opposition, with urban women arguing that it was often impossible to have a child when they were trying to further their careers (as the soviet state actively promoted female education and work placement) and because of inadequate housing. The anti-abortion laws in practice were only marginally more enforceable than in tsarist times and babki continued to ply their trade, knowing that there was little risk of being caught. Although there were numerous cases of women checking into hospitals after undergoing botched abortions, it was usually impossible to tell if they had had a miscarriage, a self-performed one, or one performed by a babka. The unwritten code of female solidarity also held strong and women seldom ratted out babki to the authorities. In practice, the abortion rate was affected little by the 1936 decrees, although it was observed that the rate of infant mortality rose between 19ue to apparently women injuring themselves in illegal abortions that then prevented them from producing healthy children. 17 Babki abortion services remained as they had always been, unsafe, expensive, and forcing women to lie to authorities.
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The main arguments used in opposition to legalizing abortion were that it would have a harmful effect on population growth or on the grounds that it was too medically harmful to the woman. By the mid-1920s, hospitals were so severely congested by abortion procedures that special clinics had to be opened to free up beds. The enormous rate of abortions being performed also caused many doctors to become concerned and restrictions business started being passed to limit abortion after the third month of pregnancy and to ensure that priority was given only to women deemed too poor, single, or who already. Only six months between a first abortion and a second abortion was permitted. In addition, renewed efforts were made to prosecute babki. This had first started with the legalization of abortion in 1920 and a fair number of babki were caught and punished as legal abortion gave them no excuse to continue operating. During the collectivization drives in the early 1930s, this was temporarily put on the back burner, but in 1934 new, stricter laws were passed on performing illegal abortions, including a circular of the rsfsr procuracy and extensive stories on them in the major newspapers.
9 The government saw legalization as a temporary necessity, as after the economic crisis and nearly a decade of unrest, war, revolution, and civil war, many women would be seeking abortions due to not being able to take care of their child. Restrictions were placed on the criteria for abortions and by 1924 it was only permitted where pregnancy risked the life of the woman or the unborn child. The soviet Union encouraged pronatal policies; however, soviet officials argued that women would be getting abortions regardless of legality, and the state would be able to regulate and control abortion only if it was legalized. In particular, the soviet government hoped to provide access to abortion in a safe environment performed by a trained doctor instead of babki. 11 While this campaign was extremely effective in the urban areas (as much as 75 of abortions in Moscow were performed in hospitals by 1925 it had much less on rural regions where there was neither access to doctors, transportation, or both and where women. 12 In the countryside in particular, women continued to see babki, midwives, hairdressers, nurses, and others for the procedure after abortion was legalized in the soviet Union. 13 The soviet Union became the first country to have abortion available, on request, often for no cost. 14 There was intense debate among government and medical officials surrounding its essay legalization.
differently than it did in Western Europe. Rather than among the political scene (as in France, for example proponents came from medical fields. 5, in 1889 the Third Congress of the pirogov society, a medical scientific society whose works had a resounding influence in Russia, started the discussion on decriminalization of abortion. Others followed: in 1911 the fourth Congress of the society of Russian Midwives, 8 in 1913 the pirogov society's Twelfth Congress, and in 1914 the russian group of the International Society of Criminologists came forward supporting decriminalization. 5 Abortion in the Union of soviet Socialist Republics edit edit The soviet government was the first government in Europe to legalize abortion. In October 1920 the bolsheviks made abortion legal within the russian soviet Federative socialist Republic with their Decree on Womens healthcare. After the rsfsr the law was introduced in Ukraine and then the remainder of the soviet Union.
Alexis Romanov 's reign the punishment for abortion hazlitt was death, only later removed. Abortion continued to be a serious crime until 1917. Through articles 14 of the russian Penal Code individuals "guilty of the crime could be deprived of civil rights and exiled or sentenced to hard labor." 5, despite its illegality, "black market" abortions existed. Underground obstetric personnel known as povivalnye babki and selskie povivalnye babki, usually translated as midwives and rural midwives, respectively and commonly referred to as simply babki, literally "old women" and povitukhi (midwives) performed abortions. Not merely abortionists, babki were trained health care professionals—they served as nurses and midwives in especially rural areas where proper medical service was unavailable. 6, the number of abortions increased in Moscow two-and-a-half times between 19; the increased frequency of abortions. Petersburg was many times higher over the turn of the century. 7, statistical data from the beginning of the 20th century suggest that the strict laws were rarely enforced. For instance, figures for sentences pronounced during the years before the first World War include: 20 (1910 28 (1911 31 (1912 and 60 (1914).
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Abortion in Russia is legal as an elective procedure up to the 12th week of pregnancy, and in special circumstances at later stages. 1, in 1920, russian soviet Republic became the first country in the world to allow abortion in all circumstances, but over the course of the 20th century, the legality of abortion changed more than once, with a ban being enacted again from 1936 to 1955. Russia had the highest number of abortions per woman of child-bearing age in the world according to un data as of 2010. 2, in terms of the total number, in 2009 China reported that it had over 13 million essay abortions, 3 out of a population.3 billion, compared to the.2 million abortions in Russia, 4 out of a population of 143 million people. Contents, abortion in the russian Empire edit, abortion was illegal in the, russian Empire. The practice is not directly referenced in the. Domostroi, though child rearing is a common topic.