Pictographic: glyphs directly represent an object or a concept such as (A) chronological, (B) notices, (C) communications, (D) totems, titles, and names, (E) religious, (F) customs, (G) historical, and (H) biographical. Ideographic: graphemes are abstract symbols that directly represent an idea or concept. Transitional system : graphemes refer not only to the object or idea that it represents good but to its name as well. Phonetic system : graphemes refer to sounds or spoken symbols, and the form of the grapheme is not related to its meanings. This resolves itself into the following substages: Verbal: grapheme ( logogram ) represents a whole word. Syllabic: grapheme represents a syllable. Alphabetic: grapheme represents an elementary sound.
The greatest benefit of writing is that it provides the tool by which society can record information consistently and in greater detail, something that could not be achieved as well previously by spoken word. Writing allows societies to transmit information and to share knowledge. Recorded history edit main articles: Recorded history and Early literature Scholars make a reasonable distinction between prehistory and history of early writing 10 but have disagreed concerning when prehistory becomes history and when proto-writing became "true writing." The definition is largely subjective. 11 Writing, in its most general terms, is a method of recording information and is composed of graphemes, which may in turn be composed of glyphs. 12 The emergence of writing in a given area is usually followed by several centuries of fragmentary inscriptions. Historians mark the "historicity" of a culture by the presence of coherent texts in the culture's writing system(s). 10 The invention of writing was not a one-time event but was a gradual process initiated by the appearance of symbols, possibly first for cultic purposes. Developmental stages edit a conventional "proto-writing to true writing" system follows a general series of developmental stages: Picture writing system : glyphs (simplified pictures) directly represent objects and concepts. In connection with this, the following substages may be distinguished: Mnemonic: glyphs primarily as a reminder.
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7 In 1999, Archaeology magazine reported that the earliest Egyptian glyphs date back to 3400 bc, which "challenge the commonly held belief that early logographs, pictographic symbols representing a specific place, object, or quantity, first evolved into more complex phonetic symbols in Mesopotamia." 8 Similar. In addition, the script is still undeciphered, and there is debate about whether the script is true writing at all or, instead, some kind of stri proto-writing or nonlinguistic sign system. An additional possibility is the undeciphered Rongorongo script of Easter Island. It is debated whether this is true writing and, if it is, whether it is another case of cultural diffusion of writing. The oldest example is from 1851, 139 years after their first contact with Europeans. One explanation is that the script was inspired by Spain 's written annexation proclamation in 1770. 9 Various other known cases of cultural diffusion of writing exist, where the general concept of writing was transmitted from one culture to another, but the specifics of the system were independently developed.
Recent examples are the Cherokee syllabary, invented by sequoyah, and the pahawh Hmong system for writing the Hmong language. Vinča symbols which are dated around 5,500 bce, are a remnant of Vinča culture which have been proposed to have created a script a millenia before those in the middle east. Writing systems edit main article: Writing system Symbolic communication systems are distinguished from writing systems in that one must usually understand something of the associated spoken language to comprehend the text. In contrast, symbolic systems, such as information signs, painting, maps, and mathematics, often do not require prior knowledge of a spoken language. Every human community possesses language, a feature regarded by many as an innate and defining condition of mankind (see origin of language ). However the development of writing systems, and their partial supplantation of traditional oral systems of communication, have been sporadic, uneven, and slow. Once established, writing systems on the whole change more slowly than their spoken counterparts and often preserve features and expressions that no longer exist in the spoken language.
Mesopotamia, is believed to be the place where written language was first invented around 3100. Writing numbers for the purpose of record keeping began long before the writing of language. History of writing ancient numbers for how the writing of numbers began. It is generally agreed that true writing of language (not only numbers) was independently conceived and developed in at least two ancient civilizations and possibly more. The two places where it is most certain that the concept of writing was both conceived and developed independently are in ancient.
Sumer (in, mesopotamia around 3100 bc, and. Mesoamerica by 300 bc, 3 because no precursors have been found to either of these in their respective regions. Mesoamerican scripts are known, the oldest being from the. Olmec or, zapotec of, mexico. Independent writing systems also arose. Egypt around 3100 bc and in China around 1200 bc in Shang dynasty 4 but historians debate whether these writing systems were developed completely independently of Sumerian writing or whether either or both were inspired by sumerian writing via a process of cultural diffusion. That is, it is possible that the concept of representing language by using writing, though not necessarily the specifics of how such a system worked, was passed on by traders or merchants traveling between the two regions. Ancient Chinese characters are considered by many to be an independent invention because there is no evidence of contact between ancient China and the literate civilizations of the near East, 5 and because of the distinct differences between the mesopotamian and Chinese approaches to logography. 6 Egyptian script is dissimilar from Mesopotamian cuneiform, but similarities in concepts and in earliest attestation suggest that the idea of writing may have come to Egypt from Mesopotamia.
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The history of writing traces the development of expressing language by letters or other marks 1 and also the studies and descriptions of these developments. In the history of how writing systems have evolved in different human civilizations, more complete writing systems were preceded by proto-writing, systems of ideographic or early mnemonic symbols. True writing, in which the content of a linguistic utterance is encoded so that another reader can reconstruct, with a fair degree of accuracy, the exact utterance written down, is a later development. It is distinguished from proto-writing, which typically avoids encoding grammatical words and affixes, making it more difficult or impossible to reconstruct the exact meaning intended by the writer unless essay a great deal of context is already known in advance. One of the earliest forms of written expression is cuneiform. 2, contents, inventions of writing edit, see also: List of languages by first written accounts. Sumer, an ancient civilization of southern.
Translation, all human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of food brotherhood. (Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights). Ottoman Turkish script ( numerals, download alphabet charts for Turkish (Excel) Sample text Translation All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. (Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights) Sample video in Turkish Links Information about Turkish m m/ Online turkish lessons izona. Edu/maxnet/tur/ m m m m m m m http www. Org p m/turkish/ Turkish phrases m m/english_turkish m/2qgmv4 ml The turkish Listening Library m Online turkish dictionaries m m m t/psychology/ t/idioms/ m m/turkish/ m / /sozluk t ml /osmtr/ /rutr/ p/ t / Turkish icq chatroom m/chat/ Online translation between Turkish and other languages. T8281 m/seslikitap/ m ml /yayinevi/sesli-kitaplar/2315 Türk dil Kurumu (TDK) (Turkish Language Association) - the official language regulator of the turkish language: - m - learn Turkish with Free audio and Video lessons - turkish learning software - learn Turkish with Glossika turkic languages Altay, äynu. Omniglot is how I make my living.
used to distinguish words that word otherwise have the same spelling; to indiciate palatalization of a preceding consonant,. Kar /kar/ (snow kâr /kar/ (profit and also to indicate long vowels in loanwords, especially those from Arabic. G gj and k kj before (and sometimes after) e, i, ö and. L ʎ, before (and sometimes after) e, i, ö and ü, and after back vowels at the ends of words h ħ before consonants and at the end of words. The letters Q (qu x (iks) and W (we) are not included in the official Turkish alphabet, but are used in foreign names and loanwords. Sample text in Turkish, bütün insanlar hür, haysiyet ve haklar bakımından eşit doğarlar. Akıl ve vicdana sahiptirler ve birbirlerine karşı kardeşlik zihniyeti ile hareket etmelidirler. Hear a recording of this text.
Recognised minority language in Bosnia and Herzegovina, greece, iraq, kosovo, macedonia, romania. Turkish is a member of the Oghuz branch of the turkic language family. It is closely related to azerbaijani, turkmen, for qashqai, gagauz, and Balkan Gagauz turkish, and the is considerable mutual intelligibility between these languages. The ancestor of modern Turkish, Oghuz, was bought to Anatolia from Central Asia during the 11th century ad by seljuq Turks. This developed into Ottoman Turkish, and contained many loanwords from Arabic and Persian. Until 1928 Turkish was written with a version of the perso-Arabic script known as the Ottoman Turkish script. In 1928, as part of his efforts to modernise turkey, mustafa kemal Atatürk issued a decree replacing the Arabic script with a version of the. Latin alphabet, which has been used ever since.
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Turkish is a turkic language spoken mainly in Turkey, northern Cyprus and mattress Cyprus. In 2017 there were 71 million native speakers of Turkish, and about 17 million second language speakers. Turkish is an official language in Turkey, northern Cyprus and Cyprus, and there are also turkish speakers in Germany, bulgaria, macedonia, greece, and other parts of Europe and Central Asia. Turkish at a glance, native name : Türkçe tyɾctʃɛ, linguistic affliation : Turkic, common Turkic, Oghuz, western Oghuz. Number of speakers :. 88 million, spoken in : Turkey, northern Cyprus, cyprus, germany, bulgaria, macedonia, greece. First written : 11th century, writing system : Ottoman Turkish script, latin script. Status : official language in Turkey, northern Cyprus and Cyprus.