Health 843 United States (VA) mixed breed German Shepherd Dog Hospital records 50 south Africa german Shepherd Dog Labrador Retriever us dept. Health 2618 United States (AL) German Shepherd Dog Collie health Dept. Severe attacks 16 United States (SC) pit bull type saint Bernard us reservations 772 United States mixed breed unspecified pedigree 19 1982 Hospital Records 420 Canada german Shepherd mixed breed Hospital records 146 United Kingdom pit bull type jack russell Terrier essay hass 487 United Kingdom. United States pit bull type Chow Chow 24 1997 Hospital records 385 Canada german Shepherd Dog Cocker Spaniel Hospital records 72 Canada rottweiler German Shepherd Dog 58 2002 Accident compensation claims 535 New zealand Mixed breed German shepherd dog Hospital records 25 south Africa pit. United States (MD) German Shepherd Dog and shepherd crosses Doberman Pinscher us bases Relative risk versus mixed breed 529 United States (il, mo) Collie german Shepherd Dog Cocker Spaniel 61 1982 Pediatric practice non-biting pets of other patients 194 United States (MO) German Shepherd Dog. Dog bites in Norfolk,. Health Seru rep, 1973;88:59-65. Chait la, spitz. Dogbite injuries in children.
Owner versus stranger and the context in which the dog is kept (e.g. Urban versus rural) prevent breed from having interests significant predictive value in its own right. Also the nature of a breed has been shown to vary across time, geographically, and according to breed subtypes such as those raised for conformation showing versus field trials. 37 given that breed is a poor sole predictor of aggressiveness and pit bull-type dogs are not implicated in controlled studies it is difficult to support the targeting of this breed as a basis for dog bite prevention. If breeds are to be targeted a cluster of large breeds would be implicated including the german shepherd and shepherd crosses and other breeds that vary by location. See also: National Animal Control Association guideline Statement: " Dangerous and/or vicious animals should be labeled as such as a result of their actions or behavior and not because of their breed. " Summary tables Table One Studies of Serious Dog Bite Injury by Breed 1971 us dept.
Breed Bans Most serious dog bite injuries (requiring hospital treatment) in the United States are the victim being a young child 54 and the dog being un-neutered and familiar (belonging to the family, a family friend or neighbor). 32,47,48,54 Therefore responsible ownership and supervision is key to minimizing the risk of dog bites in communities. While some study authors suggest limiting ownership of specific breeds might reduce injuries (e.g., pit bull type, 49 German Shepherd Dog 50 ) it has not been demonstrated that introducing a breed-specific ban will reduce the rate or severity of bite injuries occurring in the. 8,51 Strategies known to result in decreased bite incidents include active enforcement of dog control ordinances, 52 and these may include ordinances relating to breed. 53 Conclusion maulings by dogs can cause terrible injuries 47 and death—and it is natural for those dealing with the victims to seek to address the immediate causes. However as Duffy et al (2008) wrote of their survey based data: " The substantial within-breed variationsuggests that it is inappropriate to make predictions about a given dog's propensity for aggressive behavior based solely on its breed. " While breed is a factor, the impact of other factors relating to the individual animal (such as training method, sex and neutering status the target (e.g.
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Aggressive breeds Based on behavioral assessments and owner surveys the breeds that were more aggressive towards people were small to medium-sized dogs such as the collies, toy breeds and spaniels. 33,34,35,36,37 For example, a survey of general veterinary clientele in Canada (specifically practices in New Brunswick, novia scotia, and Prince Edward Island) identified Lhasa Apso, springer spaniel and Shih Tsu as more likely to bite. 43 While small dogs may be more aggressive their size means they are less likely to inflict serious bite injury except on vulnerable individuals or as part of a pack attack, which also allows dogs to seriously or injury healthy older children or adults. 38,39 Referrals for aggression problems more closely approximate the breeds implicated in serious bite attacks, probably because owners are more likely to seek treatment for aggression in dogs that are large enough to be dangerous. Larger dogs (regardless of breed) are implicated in more attacks on humans 40 and other dogs. 41 Certain large breeds are notably under-represented in bite statistics such as large hounds and retrievers (e.g., labrador Retrievers and Golden Retrievers) 35,43 —although even these breeds may have known aggressive subtypes. 42 Results relating to german Shepherd Dogs are mixed, 36,43 suggesting there may be particularly high variability in this weapons breed, perhaps depending on regional subtypes or ownership factors.
Pit Bull Types Owners of pit bull-type dogs deal with a strong breed stigma, 44 however controlled studies have not identified this breed group as disproportionately dangerous. The pit bull type is particularly ambiguous as a "breed" encompassing a range of pedigree breeds, informal types and appearances that cannot be reliably identified. Visual determination of dog breed is known to not always be reliable. 45 And witnesses may be predisposed to assume that a vicious dog is of this type. It should also be considered that the incidence of pit bull-type dogs' involvement in severe and fatal attacks may represent high prevalence in neighborhoods that present high risk to the young children who are the most common victim of severe or fatal attacks. And as owners of stigmatized breeds are more likely to have involvement in criminal and/or violent acts 46 —breed correlations may have the owner's behavior as the underlying causal factor.
If you consider only the much smaller number of cases that resulted in very severe injuries or fatalities, 21,23 pit bull-type dogs are more frequently identified. However this may relate to the popularity of the breed in the victim's community, reporting biases and the dog's treatment by its owner (e.g., use as fighting dogs 21 ). It is worth noting that fatal dog attacks in some areas of Canada are attributed mainly to sled dogs and Siberian Huskies, 56 presumably due to the regional prevalence of these breeds. See table 1 for a summary of breed data related to bite injuries. Controlled Studies, the prevalence of particular dog breeds can also change rapidly over time, often influenced by distinct peaks of popularity for specific breeds.
It seems that increased popularity is sometimes followed by increases in bite reports in some large breeds. For example there was a distinct peak in American Kennel Club registration of Rottweilers 1995, and they come at the top of the list of 'biting breeds' for the first time in studies of bites causing hospitalization in the late 90s and early 2000s. While it must be noted that other fad breeds such as Dalmatians and Irish setters do not seem to make similar appearances, any estimate of breed-based risk must take into account the prevalence of the breed in the population at the time and place. 17,31, for example, researchers can compare well-documented bite cases with matched control households. Using this method, one study found that the breeds disproportionately involved in bite injuries requiring medical attention in the denver area (where pit bull types are not permitted) were the german Shepherd Dog and Chow Chow. 64, other studies use estimates of breed prevalence that do not relate specifically to the households where the bites occurred, such as general community surveys, breed registries, licensed dogs or animal shelter populations (see table.). A study in Rome, italy where molloser dogs like mastiff are reputed to be the most dangerous dogs, found they were not disproportionately involved in biting incidents when taking into account their prevalence in the community. 32, these prevalence referenced studies attribute higher risk to the german Shepherd Dog and crosses 60,61,62,63,64, and various other breeds (mixed breed, 62,63, cocker spaniel, 61,65, chow Chow, 64,65 Collie, 61 Doberman, 60 Lhasa Apso, 44,65 Rottweiler, 49 Springer Spaniel, 43 Shih Tsu, 43 and.
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In other words, literature review is the solid background of research paper. Writing Suggestions, format style, writing cues, revising tools. This peer-reviewed summary has been prepared by the American Veterinary medical Association Animal Welfare division. While principally a review of the scientific literature, it may also include information gleaned from proprietary data, legislative and regulatory review, market conditions, and scholarly ethical assessments. It is provided as information and its contents should not be construed as official avma policy. Mention of trade names, products, commercial practices or organizations does not imply endorsement by the American Veterinary medical Association.pdf version, breeds Implicated in Serious Bite Injuries. In a range of studies, the breeds found to be highly writing represented in biting incidents were german Shepherd Dog, mixed breed, 1,4,6,8,10,11,12,19,17, 20,50 pit bull type, rottweiler, 15,18,22,24,25,28, jack russell Terrier, 21,25,26 and others (Chow Chow, 7,23, spaniel, 14,26, collie, 3,29, saint Bernard, 20 and.
In such essay subjects, some information dated back a year ago before new discoveries were made could be irrelevant. But if you are handling humanity discussions, sociology, and history, you will need to survey both current and past materials in order to show how various perspectives change over time. If youre in an English class you might want to search for current research paper topics ideas English literature. Do you wonder why literature review is so important? First, it is a general guide to a topic under discussion. When there is limited time for research, it offers a quick overview and a stepping stone to staying updated in the field. The extent of the review is what reflects the writers credibility, hence the need for extensive knowledge.
topic is computational biology, the ideal audience would be computational biologists. Then it may invite related subjects as computer science and biology. Most areas of study have countless sources for particular topics but the narrower your topic is, the easier it becomes since you dont have to include all materials in the whole world to complete your survey. Of course your professor doesnt require you to cover everything about your subject, so it would pay to have a limited and manageable scope. Go for current sources but keep in mind older studies. There are some areas which need current databases. Science in which case treatment procedures keep changing.
Whether the sources need to be evaluated, summarized, criticized, or synthesized. Whether or not background information and subheadings are necessary. To find better ways of organizing your information, you must search for other related literature reviews. Find online articles and use bibliography information from your different sources. Dont simply search for materials in the area you are reviewing but also in previous reviews. As you discuss the methods, limitations, ad recommendations, seek new angles which havent been business touched in the past. Narrow down the topic. A well-constructed topic will definitely lead to excellent literature review.
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Key parts of Research Paper review of Related Literature. Literature review is an organized summary of materials used in using a certain topic. It calls for multitasking. Assessment of relevant sources, synthesis of information, and critical thinking. Inspirations can come from co-author, editors, and reviewers. Old materials can be interpreted in new ways, and depending on the material, it can assess the sources and give relevant insights. Here are some useful guidelines by assignment geek. When the assignment has not been clarified by the instructor, a student should consult their professor to know: The preferred types of sources, the number of sources to include.