Wittgenstein was, at that time, serving in the austrian Army and subsequently spent nine months in an Italian prisoner of war camp at the end of the conflict. First World War edit during World War i, russell was one of the few people to engage in active pacifist activities and in 1916, because of his lack of a fellowship, he was dismissed from Trinity college following his conviction under the defence of the. 104 he later described this as an illegitimate means the state used to violate freedom of expression, in Free thought and Official Propaganda. Russell played a significant part in the leeds Convention in June 1917, a historic event which saw well over a thousand "anti-war socialists" gather; many being delegates from the Independent Labour Party and the socialist Party, united in their pacifist beliefs and advocating a peace. 105 The international press reported that Russell appeared with a number of Labour MPs, including Ramsay macDonald hazlitt and Philip Snowden, as well as former Liberal mp and anti-conscription campaigner, Professor Arnold Lupton. After the event, russell told Lady Ottoline morrell that, "to my surprise, when I got up to speak, i was given the greatest ovation that was possible to give anybody". 106 107 The Trinity incident resulted in Russell being fined 100, which he refused to pay in hope that he would be sent to prison, but his books were sold at auction to raise the money.
61 72 The three-volume Principia mathematica, written with Whitehead, was published between 19This, along with the earlier The Principles of Mathematics, soon made russell world-famous in his field. In 1910 he became a university of Cambridge lecturer at Trinity college where he studied. He was considered for a fellowship, which would give him a vote in the college government and protect him from being fired for his opinions, but was passed over because he was "anti-clerical report essentially because he was agnostic. He was approached by the austrian engineering student Ludwig Wittgenstein, who became his PhD student. Russell viewed Wittgenstein as a genius and a successor who would continue his work on logic. He spent hours dealing with Wittgenstein's various phobias and his frequent bouts of despair. This was often a drain on Russell's energy, but Russell continued to be fascinated by him and encouraged his academic development, including the publication of Wittgenstein's Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus in 1922. 103 Russell delivered his lectures on Logical Atomism, his version of these ideas, in 1918, before the end of World War.
Russell was impressed by the precision of peano's arguments at the congress, read the literature upon returning to England, and came upon Russell's paradox. In 1903 he published The Principles of Mathematics, a work on foundations of mathematics. It advanced a thesis of logicism, that mathematics and logic are one and the same. 101 At the age of 29, in February 1901, russell underwent what he called a "sort of mystic illumination after witnessing Whitehead 's wife's acute suffering in an angina attack. "I found myself filled with semi-mystical feelings about beauty. And with a desire almost as profound as that of the buddha to find some philosophy which should make human life endurable russell would later recall. "At the end of those five minutes, i had become a completely different person." 102 In 1905 he wrote the essay " On Denoting which was published in the philosophical journal Mind. Russell was elected a fellow of the royal Society (FRS) in 1908.
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92 he soon fell in love with the puritanical, high-minded Alys, who was a graduate of phd Bryn Mawr College near Philadelphia, and, contrary to his grandmother's wishes, married her on 13 December 1894. Their marriage began to fall apart in 1901 when it occurred to russell, while he was cycling, that he no longer loved her. 93 She asked him if he loved her and he replied that he did not. Russell also disliked Alys's mother, finding her controlling and cruel. It was to be a hollow shell of a marriage and they finally divorced in 1921, after a lengthy period of separation. 94 During this period, russell tree had passionate (and often simultaneous) affairs with a number of women, including Lady Ottoline morrell and the actress Lady constance malleson. 96 Some have suggested that at this point he had an affair with vivienne haigh-wood, the English governess and writer, and first wife.
97 Early career edit russell in 1907 Russell began his published work in 1896 with German Social Democracy, a study in politics that was an early indication of a lifelong interest in political and social theory. In 1896 he taught German social democracy at the london School of Economics. 98 he was a member of the coefficients dining club of social reformers set up in 1902 by the fabian campaigners Sidney and beatrice webb. 99 he now started an intensive study of the foundations of mathematics at Trinity. In 1898 he wrote An Essay on the foundations of geometry which discussed the cayleyKlein metrics used for non-Euclidean geometry. 100 he attended the International Congress of Philosophy in Paris in 1900 where he met giuseppe peano and Alessandro padoa. The Italians had responded to georg Cantor, making a science of set theory ; they gave russell their literature including the formulario mathematico.
He remarked in his autobiography that his keenest interests were in religion and mathematics, and that only his wish to know more mathematics kept him from suicide. 82 he was educated at home by a series of tutors. 83 When Russell was eleven years old, his brother Frank introduced him to the work of Euclid, which transformed his life. 76 84 During these formative years he also discovered the works of Percy bysshe Shelley. In his autobiography, he writes: "I spent all my spare time reading him, and learning him by heart, knowing no one to whom I could speak of what I thought or felt, i used to reflect how wonderful it would have been to know Shelley. 85 Russell claimed that beginning at age 15, he spent considerable time thinking about the validity of Christian religious dogma, which he found very unconvincing.
86 At this age, he came to the conclusion that there is no free will and, two years later, that there is no life after death. Finally, at the age of 18, after reading Mill's "Autobiography he abandoned the " First cause " argument and became an atheist. 87 88 University and first marriage edit russell won a scholarship to read for the mathematical Tripos at Trinity college, cambridge, and commenced his studies there in 1890, 89 taking as coach Robert Rumsey webb. He became acquainted with the younger george Edward moore and came under the influence of Alfred North Whitehead, who recommended him to the cambridge Apostles. He quickly distinguished himself in mathematics and philosophy, graduating as seventh Wrangler in the former in 1893 and becoming a fellow in the latter in 1895. 90 91 Russell first met the American quaker Alys pearsall Smith when he was 17 years old. He became a friend of the pearsall Smith family they knew him primarily as "Lord John's grandson" and enjoyed showing him off. He traveled with them to the continent; it was in their company that Russell visited the paris Exhibition of 1889 and was able to climb the eiffel Tower soon after it was completed.
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His grandfather, former Prime minister Earl Russell, died in 1878, and you was remembered by russell as a kindly old man in a wheelchair. His grandmother, the countess Russell (née lady Frances Elliot was the dominant family figure for the rest of Russell's childhood and youth. 72 76 The countess was from a scottish Presbyterian family, and successfully petitioned the court of Chancery to set aside a provision in Amberley's will requiring the children to be raised as agnostics. Despite her religious conservatism, she held progressive views in other areas (accepting Darwinism and supporting Irish Home rule and her influence on Bertrand Russell's outlook on social justice and standing up for principle remained with him throughout his life. (One could challenge the view that Bertrand stood up for his principles, based on his own well-known"tion: "I would never die for my beliefs because i might be wrong".) Her favourite bible verse, 'thou shalt not follow a multitude to do evil' ( Exodus. The atmosphere at Pembroke lodge was one of frequent prayer, emotional repression, and formality; Frank reacted to this with open rebellion, but the young Bertrand learned to hide his feelings. Russell's adolescence was very lonely, and he often contemplated suicide.
78 The russells had been prominent in England for several centuries before this, coming to power and the peerage with the rise of the tudor dynasty (see: duke of Bedford ). They established themselves as one of the leading British Whig families, and participated in every great political event from the dissolution of the monasteries in to the Glorious revolution in and the Great Reform Act in 1832. 78 79 Lady Amberley was the daughter of Lord and Lady Stanley of Alderley. 72 Russell often feared the ridicule of his maternal grandmother, 80 one of the campaigners for education of women. 81 Childhood and adolescence edit russell had two siblings: brother Frank (nearly seven years older than Bertrand and sister Rachel (four years older). In June 1874 Russell's mother died of diphtheria, followed shortly by rachel's death. In January 1876, his father died of bronchitis following a long period of depression. Frank and Bertrand were placed in the care summary of their staunchly victorian paternal grandparents, who lived at Pembroke lodge in Richmond Park.
nuclear disarmament. 72 In 1950, russell was awarded the nobel Prize in Literature "in recognition of his varied and significant writings in which he champions humanitarian ideals and freedom of thought ". 73 74 Contents biography edit early life and background edit russell as a four-year-old Bertrand Russell was born on t ravenscroft, Trellech, monmouthshire, into an influential and liberal family of the British aristocracy. 75 His parents, viscount and Viscountess Amberley, were radical for their times. Lord Amberley consented to his wife's affair with their children's tutor, the biologist douglas Spalding. Both were early advocates of birth control at a time when this was considered scandalous. 76 Lord Amberley was an atheist and his atheism was evident when he asked the philosopher John Stuart Mill to act as Russell's secular godfather. 77 Mill died the year after Russell's birth, but his writings had a great effect on Russell's life. His paternal grandfather, the earl Russell, had been asked twice by queen Victoria to form a government, serving her as Prime minister in the 1840s and 1860s.
Principia mathematica, an attempt to create a logical basis for mathematics. His philosophical essay ". On Denoting " has been considered a "paradigm of philosophy". 67 His work has had a considerable influence on mathematics, logic, set interests theory, linguistics, artificial intelligence, cognitive science, computer science (see type theory and type system ) and philosophy, especially the philosophy of language, epistemology and metaphysics. Russell was a prominent anti-war activist and he championed anti-imperialism. 68 69 Occasionally, he advocated preventive nuclear war, before the opportunity provided by the atomic monopoly had passed and "welcomed with enthusiasm" world government. 70 he went to prison for his pacifism during World War.
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Bertrand beauty Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, om, fRS 61 ( /rʌsəl/ ; 2 February 1970) was a british philosopher, logician, mathematician, historian, writer, social critic, political activist, and, nobel laureate. 62 63, at various points in his life, russell considered himself a liberal, a socialist and a pacifist, but he also admitted that he had "never been any of these things, in any profound sense". Russell was born in, monmouthshire into one of the most prominent aristocratic families in the United Kingdom. 65, in the early 20th century, russell led the British "revolt against idealism ". 66, he is considered one of the founders of analytic philosophy along with his predecessor. Gottlob Frege, colleague,. . Moore and protégé, ludwig Wittgenstein. He is widely held to be one of the 20th century's premier logicians.