Deconstructing the text input process Through analysis of keystrokes, the keystrokes of the input stream were divided into four classes: Correct (c incorrect Fixed (if fixes (f and Incorrect Not Fixed (INF). These key stroke classification are broken down into the following. The two classes Correct and Incorrect Not Fixed comprise all of the characters in transcribed mba text. Fixes (F) keystrokes are easy to identify, and include keystrokes such as backspace, delete, cursor movements, and modifier keys. Incorrect Fixed (IF) keystrokes are found in the input stream, but not the transcribed text, and are not editing keys. Using these classes, the minimum String Distance Error Rate and the key strokes per Character statistics can both be calculated. Minimum string distance error rate The minimum string distance (MSD) is the number of "primitives" which is the number of insertions, deletions, or substitutions to transform one string into another. The following equation was found for the msd error Rate msd error Rate (inf cinf)100displaystyle (inf cinf 100 key strokes per character (kspc) With the minimum string distance error, errors that are corrected do not appear in the transcribed text. The following example will show you why this is an important class of errors to consider: Presented Text : the quick brown Input Stream : the quix -ck brown Transcribed Text : the quick brown in the above example, the incorrect character x was deleted.
With the current technology, document preparation is more about using word-processors as a composition aid, changing the meaning of gpa error rate and how it is measured. Research performed. William soukoreff and. Scott MacKenzie, has led to a discovery of the application of a well-known algorithm. Through the use of this algorithm and accompanying analysis technique, two statistics were used, minimum string distance error rate (msd error rate) and keystrokes per character (kspc). The two advantages of this technique include:. Participants are allowed to enter text naturally, since they may commit errors and correct them. The identification of errors and generation of error rate statistics is easy to automate.
Two of the most notable online records that are considered genuine are 241.82 wpm on an English text on m by Brazilian guilherme sandrini (equivalent to 290.184 wpm using the traditional definition for words per minute since this site defines a word as six characters. 15 Both of these records are essentially sprint speeds on short text selections lasting much less than one minute and were achieved on the qwerty keyboard. Wrona also maintained 174 wpm on a 50-minute test taken on t, another online typing website to unofficially displace Blackburn as the fastest endurance typist, although disputes might still arise over differences in the difficulty of the texts as well as Wrona's use. Michael deroche, an intense but skilled typist had scored 300 wpm in Typeracer become defeated the rival Erik treider and sean Wrona. 16 17 Using a personalized interface, physicist Stephen Hawking, who suffered from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, managed to type 15 wpm with a switch and adapted software created by walt Woltosz. Due to a slowdown of his motor skills, his interface was upgraded with an infrared camera that detected "twitches in the cheek muscle under the eye." 18 His typing speed decreased to approximately one word per minute in the later part of his life. 19 Numeric entry The numeric entry, or 10-key, speed is a measure of one's ability to manipulate a numeric keypad. Text-entry research Error analysis With the introduction of computers and word-processors, there has been a change in how text-entry is performed. In the past, using a typewriter, speed was measured with a stopwatch and errors were tallied by hand.
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The common conversion factor between wpm and cpm. It is also used occasionally for associating the plan speed of a reader with the amount they have read. Cpm has also been applied to 20th century printers, but modern faster printers more commonly use ppm (pages per minute). The fastest typing speed ever, 216 words per minute, was achieved by Stella pajunas-Garnand from Chicago in 1946 in one minute on an ibm electric. 8 9 10, writer Barbara Blackburn was the fastest English language typist in the world, according to The guinness book of World Records.
Using the dvorak simplified keyboard, she had maintained 150 wpm for 50 minutes, and 170 wpm for shorter periods, with a peak speed of 212 wpm. Blackburn, who failed her qwerty typing class in high school, first encountered the dvorak keyboard in 1938, quickly learned to achieve very high speeds, and occasionally toured giving speed-typing demonstrations during her secretarial career. She appeared on Late night with david Letterman on January 24, 1985, but felt that Letterman made a spectacle of her. 12 13 Blackburn died in April 2008. 12 The recent emergence of several competitive typing websites has allowed several fast typists on computer keyboards to emerge along with new records, though these are unverifiable for the most part.
Please see discussion on the linked talk page. (April 2010) Further information: Words per minute words per minute (WPM) is a measure of typing speed, commonly used in recruitment. For the purposes of wpm measurement a word is standardized to five characters or keystrokes. Therefore, "brown" counts as one word, but "mozzarella" counts as two. The benefits of a standardized measurement of input speed are that it enables comparison across language and hardware boundaries.
The speed of an Afrikaans -speaking operator in Cape town can be compared with a french -speaking operator in Paris. Alphanumeric entry In one study of average computer users, the average rate for transcription was 33 words per minute, and 19 words per minute for composition. 4 In the same study, when the group was divided into "fast "moderate" and "slow" groups, the average speeds were 40 wpm, 35 wpm, and 23 wpm respectively. An average professional typist reaches 50 to 80 wpm, while some positions can require 80 to 95 wpm (usually the minimum required for dispatch positions and other typing jobs and some advanced typists work at speeds above 120 wpm. 5 6 Two-finger typists, sometimes also referred to as "hunt and peck" typists, commonly reach sustained speeds of about 37 wpm for memorized text and 27 wpm when copying text, but in bursts may be able to reach speeds of 60 to 70 wpm. 7 From the 1920s through the 1970s, typing speed (along with shorthand speed) was an important secretarial qualification and typing contests were popular and often publicized by typewriter companies as promotional tools. A less common measure of the speed of a typist, cpm is used to identify the number of characters typed per minute. This is a common measurement for typing programs, or typing tutors, as it can give a more accurate measure of a person's typing speed without having to type for a prolonged period of time.
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Instead of the number of fingers, there are other factors that predict typing speed. Keep their hands fixed on one position, instead of moving them over the keyboard, and more consistently use the same finger to will type a certain letter." to" doctoral candidate Anna feit: "We were surprised to observe that people who took a typing course, performed. In the buffer method, the typist looks at the source copy, mentally stores one or several sentences, then looks at the keyboard and types out the buffer of sentences. This eliminates frequent up and down motions with the head and is used in typing competitions in which the typist is not well versed in touch typing. Clarification needed not normally used in day-to-day contact with keyboards, this buffer method is used only when time is of the essence. Citation needed Thumbing A late 20th century trend in typing, primarily used with devices with small keyboards (such as pdas and Smartphones is thumbing or thumb typing. This can be accomplished using one or both thumbs. Similar to desktop keyboards and input devices, if a user overuses keys which need hard presses and/or have small and unergonomic layouts, it could cause thumb tendonitis or other repetitive strain injury. Citation needed words per minute This article appears to contradict the article words per minute.
There is also the disadvantage that because fewer fingers are used, those that are used are forced to move a much greater distance. Civilian Conservation Corps typing class, 1933 Hybrid There are many idiosyncratic typing styles in between novice-style "hunt and peck" and touch typing. For example, many "hunt and peck" typists have the keyboard layout memorized and are able to type while focusing their gaze on the screen. Some use just two prime fingers, while others use 3-6 fingers. Some use their fingers very consistently, with the same finger being used to type the same character every time, while others vary the way they use their fingers. One study examining 30 subjects, of varying different styles and expertise, has found minimal difference in typing speed between touch typists and self-taught hybrid typists. 3 According to the study, "The number of fingers does not determine typing speed. People using self-taught typing strategies were found to be as fast as trained typists.
tall, leaning slightly forward from the waist, place their feet flat on the floor in front of them with one foot slightly in front of the other, and keep their elbows close to their sides with forearms slanted. Many touch typists also use keyboard shortcuts or hotkeys when typing on a computer. This allows them to edit their document without having to take their hands off the keyboard to use a mouse. An example of a keyboard shortcut is pressing the Ctrl key plus the s key to save a document as they type, or the Ctrl key plus the z key to undo a mistake. Many experienced typists can feel or sense when they have made an error and can hit the backspace key and make the correction with no increase in time between keystrokes. Hunt and peck hunt and peck ( two-fingered typing also known as Eagle finger, is a common form of typing in which the typist presses each key individually. Instead of relying on the memorized position of keys, the typist must find each key by sight. Use of this method may also prevent the typist from being able to see what has been typed without glancing away from the keys. Although good accuracy may be achieved, any typing errors that are made may not be noticed immediately due to the user not looking at the screen.
Text can be in the form of letters, numbers and other symbols. The world's first typist was Lillian Sholes from. Wisconsin, 1 2 the daughter of, christopher Sholes, who invented the first practical typewriter. 1, user interface features such as spell checker and autocomplete serve to facilitate and speed up typing and to prevent or correct errors the typist may make. Contents, evernote technique, touch typing. Typing zones on a, qwerty keyboard for each finger taken from. Ktouch, main article: touch typing. The basic technique stands in contrast to hunt and peck typing in which the typist keeps his or her eyes on the source copy at all times.
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Write your name in suetterlin, deutsche version, version francaise. Java script must be activated please type slowly (up to 25 letters). Please write s_1 at middle of word s_2 at end of word, also in combined words examples : Gräser Gras hausschlüssel s_2 is shown as "2 St is shown as "8" 2006 Peter Dörling, norderstedt. This article is about writing entering text. For classification of data into types in programming, see. Video of typing on a notebook computer keyboard. Typing is the process of writing or inputting text by pressing keys on a typewriter, computer keyboard, cell phone, or calculator. It can be distinguished from other means of text input, such as handwriting and speech recognition.