As I demonstrate in the limits of educability: Asperger and the Spiegelgrund euthanasia facility section, herta Schreiber, the girl in question, was in fact transferred to dark the Spiegelgrund facility on Aspergers authority and died there 2 months later. From 2005, cracks started to appear in the predominantly apologetic narrative of Aspergers role during National Socialism. Michael Hubenstorf, in an extensive book chapter on the history of vienna Universitys Pediatric Clinic where Asperger worked, presented a host of previously unknown aspects of Aspergers career. The close ties between the pediatric clinic and the euthanasia facility Am Spiegelgrund, including connections between Asperger and Spiegelgrunds director Erwin jekelius (19051952, fig. 2 are of particular importance in the context of this paper ( 4 : 1714). Hubenstorf also documented the relationship between Asperger and his mentor Franz hamburger, a fervent nazi ideologue ( 4 : 93, 1189, 12635, 1913; see the the best service to our Volk : Asperger and nazi race hygiene to aspergers diagnoses compared to those at Spiegelgrund. Based among other sources on Hubenstorfs work, on personal documents, and on her own memories, maria asperger Felder published a nuanced portrait of her father, not shying away from his possible involvement in National Socialism—without, however, adding significant new facts. Citing Schirmer 8, daniel Kondziella in a 2009 paper on 30 neurological eponyms associated with the nazi era included Asperger among the physicians with ambivalent roles because he had been accused on uncertain grounds of harboring sympathy for nazi politics (while he had also cautiously.
Eric Schopler, one of Aspergers fiercest critics, was one of those who explicitly drew this connection, but apparently had no evidence to back his accusations. 2 When Frith published an annotated translation of Aspergers 1944 paper, her sole comment on its origin in nazi-era vienna was that it contained only one reference to fascist ideology at a time when it would have been opportune to make many more such references. 3 Brita Schirmer published the first paper explicitly addressing Aspergers role during National Socialism 8 ; her stance is already indicated in the subtitle: Hans Aspergers defense of the autistic psychopaths against nazi eugenics. Her argument was based on Aspergers 1938 paper The mentally abnormal child 1 from which she drew conclusions similar to Uta Friths. A 2003 paper by helmut Gröger, also in German, examined possible influences of nazi race ideology on Aspergers published work. Citing no less than 23 of Aspergers publications in the years from 1937 to 1974, Gröger concluded that Asperger generally avoided topics touching race ideology and maintained a critical, differentiated attitude ( 9 : 204, 206). 4 In line with the other authors cited here, gröger credited Asperger with advocating on behalf of his patients, defending their value as human beings, and calling for loving care for each of them ( 9 : 2045, 210). Interestingly, gröger mentioned—without discussing the implications—that Aspergers name appears in the files of a 3-year-old girl with mental deficiencies who was sent to the child euthanasia clinic Am Spiegelgrund in vienna ( 9 : 209).
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This was not least due to opportunities created by the political upheaval after Austrias. Anschluss (annexation) to germany in 1938, including the expulsion of Jewish physicians from the profession. (On the expulsion of Jews from the university clinic, which began before 1938, see 4 and below). As I will demonstrate, this career was made possible by Aspergers political concessions to the nazi ideology and involved a certain degree of collaboration with the race hygiene apparatus, including the nazis child euthanasia program. The analysis of patient case files written by Asperger and his colleagues from 1928 to 1944—a crucial set of documents mistakenly assumed to have been destroyed in World War ii—sheds new light on the fate of Aspergers patients during the nazi period (on Aspergers case. Aspergers Jewish patients to, aspergers diagnoses compared to those at Spiegelgrund sections).
A review of the existing literature on Aspergers life and career shows the current fault lines in the narrative of his nazi-era trajectory. Lorna wings seminal paper from 1981 which popularized the term Aspergers syndrome made no reference to the historical context of Aspergers work. Similarly, uta Friths 1991 book chapter Asperger and his syndrome barely mentioned National Socialism in the few pages dedicated to Aspergers professional and personal life in vienna during the 1930s and 1940s. Based on her reading of Aspergers 1944 article on autistic psychopaths, she stated that Asperger clearly cared about these children, who in most peoples eyes were simply obnoxious brats ( 6 : 7). Her text established what has become the most common view of Aspergers behavior during the nazi period, namely that he defended his patients against the nazi regime at great personal risk: Far from despising the misfits, he devoted himself to their cause—and this. She defended Asperger against accusations of allegiance to nazi ideology that had been raised because of his early commitment to the german youth movement ( 6 : 10).
Conclusion, the narrative of Asperger as a principled opponent of National Socialism and a courageous defender of his patients against nazi euthanasia and other race hygiene measures does not hold up in the face of the historical evidence. What emerges is a much more problematic role played by this pioneer of autism research. Future use of the eponym should reflect the troubling context of its origins in nazi-era vienna. Biography, aspergers syndrome, therapeutic pedagogy (Heilpädagogik autism. World War ii, national Socialism, history, vienna/Austria. Child psychiatry, pediatrics, despite the international prominence of Hans Asperger (Fig.
1 ) as one of the pioneers in the history of autism and as the namesake of Aspergers syndrome, factual knowledge about his life and career is limited. This is surprising given that his successful career in nazi-controlled vienna raises questions concerning his potential political or professional involvement with National Socialism. The existing literature on the topic has tended to downplay or overlook any such involvement, or even to postulate that Asperger took a position of active resistance. With few exceptions, however, these judgments are based on a limited number of sources—a few passages from Aspergers nazi-era publications, particularly a 1938 lecture containing the first references to autistic psychopaths postdoctoral thesis 2, 1 and statements by Asperger himself or by persons close. 1, portrait of Hans Asperger (19061980) from his personnel file,. The goals of this paper, based on comprehensive archival research, are to provide an account of Aspergers life and career during National Socialism and to submit prevailing narratives to the test of historical evidence. The picture that emerges is that of a man who managed to further his career under the nazi regime, despite his apparent political and ideological distance from.
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From then on, the eponym Aspergers syndrome increasingly gained currency in recognition of his review outstanding contribution to the conceptualization of the condition. At the time, the fact that Asperger had spent pivotal years of his career in nazi vienna caused some controversy regarding his potential ties to national Socialism and its race hygiene policies. Documentary evidence was scarce, however, and over time a narrative of Asperger as an active opponent of National Socialism took hold. The main goal of this paper is to re-evaluate this narrative, which is based to a large extent on statements made by Asperger himself and on a small segment of his published work. Methods, drawing on a vast array of contemporary publications and previously unexplored archival documents (including Aspergers personnel files and the clinical assessments he wrote on his patients this paper offers a critical examination of Aspergers life, politics, and career before and during the nazi period. Results, asperger managed to accommodate himself to the nazi regime and was rewarded for his affirmations of loyalty with career opportunities. He joined several organizations affiliated with the nsdap (although not the nazi party itself publicly legitimized race hygiene policies including forced sterilizations and, on several occasions, actively cooperated with the child euthanasia program. The language he employed to diagnose his patients was often remarkably harsh (even in comparison with assessments written by the staff at viennas notorious Spiegelgrund euthanasia institution belying the notion that he tried to protect the children under his care by embellishing homework their diagnoses.
John Nicholson, the outgoing commander of Resolute support and. Shares by judson Phillips Nine years after the tea party movement and roared into the American political scene, a lot of people are asking if the era of the tea party is over. Todd wood Russian Foreign Minister Sergey lavrov was in pyongyang Thursday, greeted with much fanfare on his way to talks with North Korean leader Kim Jong-un. It's a little drop-by that reveals many things about Russia, its priorities in Northeast Asia and its approach to the crisis on the korean peninsula. Shares by associated Press a baptist church in south Carolina has voted to remove a statue of Jesus Christ because some believe it's too "Catholic" for their place of worship. Todd wood Yes, the American security services attempted to use the "Russia collusion" narrative to unseat a duly elected American president; in other words, a coup Shares). Received: 28 February 2017, accepted:, background, hans Asperger (19061980) first designated a group of children with distinct psychological characteristics as autistic psychopaths in 1938, several years before leo kanners famous 1943 paper on autism. In 1944, Asperger published a comprehensive study on the topic (submitted to vienna University in 1942 as his postdoctoral thesis which would only find international acknowledgement in the 1980s.
and pro-palestinian forces at the. And in Europe, israel is stronger than ever. Todd wood, according to reports, the lebanese are corrupting the beirut airport and facilitating the smuggling of weapons and drugs, and enabling the transition of pro-Iranian fighters to other countries from the civil wars in the middle east. Todd wood, anyone who has visited the temple mount in the center of the old city of Jerusalem in the last decade must acknowledge the obvious: Jerusalem is the indisputable capital of Israel. By, judson Phillips, june is "Pride month." Liberal Fascism Month might be a better title. Todd wood - the washington Times Satellite imagery and new analysis from Israeli intelligence firm ImageSat International (isi dated June 3, suggested the Chinese surface-to-air missile systems on woody Island, in the paracel Islands, may have been removed or relocated, The south China morning Post. Todd wood As the world deals with rampant totalitarianism after the foreign policy failures of the disastrous Obama administration and the undermining of American leadership, it is becoming all too common to see dictatorships use religion or rabid nationalism to hide their real agenda. Todd wood The Afghan government declared this week that Taliban operations span the entire country, contradicting a recent briefing by gen.
By, judson Phillips, imagine for a moment that Rudy giuliani, president Trump's attorney, went to witnesses in the mueller special investigation and said, "The president will give you (fill in the blank if you will give evidence and testify favorably for the president.". Todd wood, iranian President Hassan rouhani's visit to european capitals went forward this week, despite the brazen incident, in a bid to save the 2015 nuclear accord with Europe and the lucrative business deals Tehran hopes go along with. Todd wood, this Saturday, some 100,000 Iranian exiles will descend on Paris for the annual Free iran Gathering, sponsored by the national council of Resistance of Iran. The delegates are gathering at a time when every measure of the coming end of the Iranian regime is moving in the right direction - in numbers, effectiveness, attention and even the gravitas of the speakers. By, judson Phillips, in the summer of 2014, the congressional tea party caucus held a meeting on Capitol Hill and invited for the leaders of about 20 tea party groups. The meeting was to discuss strategy. As the meeting wound down, the door to the meeting room opened and in came sen. By edward lozansky, it seems that.
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Related Articles, by,. Todd wood, summary the western media have made a big deal about the threat from Vladimir Putin's Russia. But as i've written before, even though it could, it's not Moscow that is threatening to destroy the United States and Israel. By, judson Phillips, special counsel Robert mueller is going after a group in Washington. They have one single crime. They are Trump Republicans. Todd wood, i've written many times before about how you have to look at the consequences of a politician's actions and policies to judge his priorities, not his oratory. By, tim Constantine, major league baseball brings its annual summer All-Star classic to our nation's capital this week.