Other programs are event-driven - they respond to an external event, such as a button click or network request, by performing some computation, and then they wait for the next event. These frames or event responses form a natural way of "chunking" time. If the execution of a line of code add is like a sentence, then a frame is like a chapter. These chapters can also be made tangible, so the programmer can understand the execution at this granularity as well. The following example provides a timeline for exploring line-by-line execution, and a slider for exploring frame-by-frame. This control enables the programmer to go backwards and forwards through time, study interesting frames, and compare the execution across different frames. Make time visible In the above example, we are once again peeking through a pinhole, seeing just one frame at a time. In the following example, all frames are lightly overlaid, in order to give context to the active frame. The entire path of the ball can be seen at once.
In the following example, the program flow is plotted on a timeline. Each line of code that is executed leaves a dot behind. The programmer can take in the entire flow at a glance: The patterns that emerge are especially helpful in the presence of conditionals and other forms of flow control: It's possible that some novices may initially be confused by a timeline, but I'd say that. This visualization allows the programmer to see the "shape" of an algorithm, and understand it at a higher level. The program flow is no longer "one line after another mom but a pattern of lines over time. Make time tangible line-by-line execution is a very fine-grained view of time. The programmer also thinks about time at other granularities. For instance, animations and games run at a frame rate, say, sixty frames per second. Every 1/60th of a second, the program prepares the next frame to display on the screen.
Make flow visible The example above allows the programmer to follow the program's execution over time. But she's peeking through a pinhole, only seeing a single point in time at any instant. She has no visual context. To illustrate what I mean, here are two representations of a trip around my neighborhood, one where the neighborhood itself isn't visible, and one where. This "overhead view" lets a person understand the trip at a higher level. She can see the shape of the trip. She can see patterns.
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We see code on the left and a result on the right, but it's the steps in between which matter most. The computer traces a path through the code, looping around loops and calling into functions, updating variables and incrementally building up the output. We see none of this. People understand things that they can see and touch. In order for a learner to understand what the program is actually doing, the program flow must be made visible and tangible. Make flow tangible That example program again: This is a particularly difficult example for a beginner to follow. The "for" construct, with its three statements on a single line, makes the control flow jump around bizarrely, and is an unnecessarily steep introduction to the concept of looping.
To make the flow more sane for a learner, the loop can be rewritten using "while now, the control flow must be made tangible. We must put the execution of the program into the programmer's hand, let her feel that it is a real thing, remote let her own. In the following example, the programmer uses a slider to scrub through the execution: This control allows the programmer to move around the loop at her own pace, and understand what is happening at each step. She can go backwards and forwards, dwell in difficult areas, and compare what is happening at different times. She can study how the output is built up over time, instead of seeing it magically appear all at once.
All that really matters is that somehow the learner's questions get answered: An environment which allows learners to get hung up on these questions is an environment which discourages learners from even getting started. A typical live-coding environment presents the learner with code on the left, and the output of the code on the right. When the code is changed, the output updates instantaneously. Imagine a cooking show, ruthlessly abbreviated. First, you're shown a counter full of ingredients. Then, you see a delicious soufflé.
Then, the show's over. Would you understand how that soufflé was made? Would you feel prepared to create one yourself? You need to see how the ingredients are combined. You need to see the steps. The programming environment exhibits the same ruthless abbreviation as this hypothetical cooking show.
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That is, they show as well as tell. Instead of just describing what vocabulary means, we can often show it in the context of the data. In the following example, the labels connect the code and its output: Such a connection can be especially powerful when a line of code does multiple things: Summary — read the vocabulary, the particular solutions shown here are merely examples. What matters is the underlying purpose: enabling the learner to read the program. The environment should make meaning transparent, essay so the learner can concentrate on high-level concepts, not vocabulary. The environment should explain in context. Annotate the data, not just the code. The examples above are just one of many ways of achieving these goals.
It's tempting to think of this as "inline help but it's not help - it's simply labeling. The problem with the following ui isn't that it lacks a "help feature". The problem is that nothing is labeled. That ui is exactly as informative as this line of code: Why do we consider the code acceptable and the ui not? Why do we expect programmers to "look up" functions in "documentation while modern user interfaces are designed so that documentation is typically unnecessary? A programming environment is a user interface for understanding a program. Especially in an environment for learning, the environment must be designed to explain. One attribute of great explanations is that they are often embedded in the context of what writing they are explaining.
not about guessing the functionality of your kitchen appliances. It's about understanding how ingredients can be combined. Likewise, guessing the third argument of the "ellipse" function isn't "learning programming". It's simply a barrier to learning. In a modern environment, memorizing the minutia of an api should be as relevant as memorizing times tables. The environment is responsible for making meaning transparent. The environment must enable the reader to effortlessly read the program, to decode the code, so she can concentrate on genuine programming concepts - how the algorithmic "ingredients" combine. Here is one example of how a programming environment can make meaning transparent, by providing labels on mouse-over: Control structures can be labeled as well.
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Satsang Asmita was the subject of the young yuvak-yuvati assembly in the presence of Pramukh Swami maharaj as a large assembly gathered in the haveli for the morning programme. Shri harikrishna maharaj suvarna tula festival was the central event, offering the youngsters a unique opportunity to offer their devotion to Shri harikrishna maharaj, the sacred image of Bhagwan writing Swaminarayan. As the sadhus narrated various incidents, the collection of touching memories and the acute devotion offered by Swamishri inspired sadhus and devotees alike. Swamishri opened his blessings with the emphasis on satsang asmita, discussing the pride individuals exhibit towards ones nation, family, possessions and status; for devotees, however, the pride of this satsang is of utmost important. Urging youths to control their minds and remain within the roots of this satsang, Swamishri underlined the importance of adhering to ones religious principles, avoiding unsuitable company, which tarnishes the mind. An episode from Maharajs life was referenced, where a young boy presented a watermelon to maharaj after a considerable battle with his mind, overcoming his desire to consume the fruit en route. Swamishri encouraged the youths to remain strong and firm.